Health Hippo: Women & Children
Twins are like one another for the following reasons. First, they were secreted together; then the places are alike in which they grow, then they grow by the same nourishment, and at birth they reach together the light of day.
The Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) entitles eligible employees of covered employers to take unpaid, job-protected leave for specified family and medical reasons with continuation of group health insurance coverage under the same terms and conditions as if the employee had not taken leave. Eligible employees are entitled to: twelve workweeks of leave in a 12-month period for the birth of a child and to care for the newborn child within one year of birth; the placement with the employee of a child for adoption or foster care and to care for the newly placed child within one year of placement; to care for the employee’s spouse, child, or parent who has a serious health condition; a serious health condition that makes the employee unable to perform the essential functions of his or her job; any qualifying exigency arising out of the fact that the employee’s spouse, son, daughter, or parent is a covered military member on “covered active duty;” or twenty-six workweeks of leave during a single 12-month period to care for a covered servicemember with a serious injury or illness if the eligible employee is the servicemember’s spouse, son, daughter, parent, or next of kin (military caregiver leave).
- Affordable Care Act: Provisions related to women and children.
- Sec. 2201. Enrollment Simplification and coordination with State Health Insurance Exchanges.
- Sec. 2202. Permitting hospitals to make presumptive eligibility determinations for all Medicaid eligible populations.
- Sec. 2301. Coverage for freestanding birth center services.
- Sec. 2302. Concurrent care for children.
- Sec. 2303. State eligibility option for family planning services.
- Sec. 2304. Clarification of definition of medical assistance.
- Sec. 2951. Maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting programs.
- Sec. 2952. Support, education, and research for postpartum depression.
- Sec. 2953. Personal responsibility education.
- Sec. 2954. Restoration of funding for abstinence education.
- Sec. 2955. Inclusion of information about the importance of having a health care power of attorney in transition planning for children aging out of foster care and independent living programs.
- Sec. 3509. Improving womens health.
- Sec. 4101. School-based health centers.
- Sec. 4107. Coverage of comprehensive tobacco cessation services for pregnant women in Medicaid.
- Sec. 4204. Immunizations.
- Sec. 4207. Reasonable break time for nursing mothers.
- Sec. 4306. Funding for Childhood Obesity Demonstration Project.
- Sec. 10104. Amendments to subtitle D.
- State Opt-out of Abortion Coverage
- Sec. 10203. Extension of funding for CHIP through fiscal year 2015 and other CHIP-related provisions.
- Sec. 10211. Definitions.
- Sec. 10212. Establishment of pregnancy assistance fund.
- Sec. 10213. Permissible uses of Fund.
- Sec. 10413. Young women’s breast health awareness and support of young women diagnosed with breast cancer.
- Sec. 10909. Expansion of adoption credit and adoption assistance programs.
- Balanced Budget Act: Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
- Sec. 4901 Establishment of program.
- Sec. 2101 Purpose; State child health plans.
- Sec. 2102 General contents of State child health plan; eligibility;
- Sec. 2103 Coverage requirements for children’s health insurance.
- Sec. 2104 Allotments.
- Sec. 2105 Payments to States.
- Sec. 2106 Process for submission, approval, and amendment of State child
- Sec. 2107 Strategic objectives and performance goals; plan
- Sec. 2108 Annual reports; evaluations.
- Sec. 2109 Miscellaneous provisions.
- Sec. 2110 Definitions.
4911 Optional use of State child health assistance funds for enhanced medicaid match for expanded medicaid
- Sec. 4912 Medicaid presumptive eligibility for low-income children.
- Sec. 4913 Continuation of medicaid eligibility for disabled children who
lose SSI benefits.
- Sec. 4921 Special diabetes programs for children with
Type I diabetes.
- Sec. 4922 Special diabetes programs for Indians.
- Sec. 4923 Report on diabetes grant programs.
- Sec. 4101 Screening mammography.
- Sec. 4102 Screening pap smear and pelvic exams.
- New Borns’
and Mothers’ Health Protection Act of 1995 Mandating coverage for 48 hour hospital stays
following normal pregnancy and 96 hours following a C-section.
- Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act
(EMTALA) 42 USC Sec. 1395dd.
- Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 Prohibiting
discrimination against pregnant women in hiring, benefits, insurance and leave.
- The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
29 USC sec. 2601, et. seq.
- 2601. Findings and purposes.
- 2611. Definitions.
- 2612. Leave requirement.
- 2613. Certification.
- 2614. Employment and benefits protection.
- 2615. Prohibited acts.
- 2616. Investigative authority.
- 2617. Enforcement.
- 2618. Special rules concerning employees of local
- 2619. Notice.
- 2631. Establishment (Commission on Leave).
- 2632. Duties.
- 2633. Membership.
- 2634. Compensation.
- 2635. Powers.
- 2636. Termination.
- 2651. Effect on other laws.
- 2652. Effect on existing employment benefits.
- 2653. Encouragement of more generous leave
- 2654. Regulations.
- 10 USC Sec. 1093 Restriction on use of funds for
- 15 USC Chapter 91 CHILDREN’S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION ACT
- 18 USC Sec. 1461 Mailing obscene or crime-inciting
- 19 USC Sec. 1305 Immoral articles; importation
- 20 USC Sec. 1688 Neutrality with respect to
- 21 USC Sec. 393a Office of Pediatric Therapeutics
- 21 USC Sec. 399b Office of Women’s Health
- 22 USC Sec. 2151b Population planning and health
- 42 USC Sec. 256d Breast and cervical cancer
- 42 USC Sec. 300a-6 Prohibition against
funding programs using abortion as family planning method
- 42 USC Sec. 300z-10 Restrictions
- 42 USC Sec. 1975c Duties of the Commission
Code of Federal
- 16 CFR PART 312 CHILDREN’S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE
- Sec. 312.1 Scope of regulations in this part.
- Sec. 312.2 Definitions.
- Sec. 312.3 Regulation of unfair or deceptive acts or practices in connection with the collection, use, and/or disclosure of personal information from and about children on the Internet.
- Sec. 312.4 Notice.
- Sec. 312.5 Parental consent.
- Sec. 312.6 Right of parent to review personal information provided by a child.
- Sec. 312.7 Prohibition against conditioning a child’s participation on collection of personal information.
- Sec. 312.8 Confidentiality, security, and integrity of personal information collected from children.
- Sec. 312.9 Enforcement.
- Sec. 312.10 Safe harbors.
- Sec. 312.11 Rulemaking review.
- Sec. 312.12 Severability.
- 21 CFR PART 884 OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES
- SUBPART A General Provisions (884.1 – 884.9)
- SUBPART B Obstetrical and Gynecological Diagnostic Devices (884.1040 – 884.1730)
- SUBPART C Obstetrical and Gynecological Monitoring Devices (884.2050 – 884.2990)
- SUBPART D Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices (884.3200 – 884.3900)
- SUBPART E Obstetrical and Gynecological Surgical Devices (884.4100 – 884.4900)
- SUBPART F OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL THERAPEUTIC DEVICES (884.5050 – 884.5970))
- SUBPART G Assisted Reproduction Devices (884.6100 – 884.6200)
- 28 CFR PART 551 SUBPART C, BIRTH CONTROL, PREGNANCY, CHILD PLACEMENT, AND ABORTION (BUREAU OF PRISONS).
- 29 CFR PART 825 THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL
LEAVE ACT OF 1993
- SUBPART A Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act (825.100 – 825.127)
- Sec. 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act.
- Sec. 825.101 Purpose of the Act.
- Sec. 825.102-825.103 [Reserved]
- Sec. 825.104 Covered employer.
- Sec. 825.105 Counting employees for determining coverage.
- Sec. 825.106 Joint employer coverage.
- Sec. 825.107 Successor in interest coverage.
- Sec. 825.108 Public agency coverage.
- Sec. 825.109 Federal agency coverage.
- Sec. 825.110 Eligible employee.
- Sec. 825.111 Determining whether 50 employees are employed within 75 miles.
- Sec. 825.112 Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule.
- Sec. 825.113 Serious health condition.
- Sec. 825.114 Inpatient care.
- Sec. 825.115 Continuing treatment.
- Sec. 825.116-825.118 [Reserved]
- Sec. 825.119 Leave for treatment of substance abuse.
- Sec. 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth.
- Sec. 825.121 Leave for adoption or foster care.
- Sec. 825.122 Definitions.
- Sec. 825.123 Unable to perform the functions of the position.
- Sec. 825.124 Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.
- Sec. 825.125 Definition of health care provider.
- Sec. 825.126 Leave because of a qualifying exigency.
- Sec. 825.127 Leave to care for a covered servicemember with a serious injury or illness.
- SUBPART B Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act (825.200 – 825.220)
- Sec. 825.200 Amount of leave.
- Sec. 825.201 Leave to care for a parent.
- Sec. 825.202 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.
- Sec. 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.
- Sec. 825.204 Transfer of an employee to an alternative position during intermittent leave or reduced schedule leave.
- Sec. 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.
- Sec. 825.206 Interaction with the FLSA.
- Sec. 825.207 Substitution of paid leave.
- Sec. 825.208 [Reserved]
- Sec. 825.209 Maintenance of employee benefits.
- Sec. 825.210 Employee payment of group health benefit premiums.
- Sec. 825.211 Maintenance of benefits under multi-employer health plans.
- Sec. 825.212 Employee failure to pay health plan premium payments.
- Sec. 825.213 Employer recovery of benefit costs.
- Sec. 825.214 Employee right to reinstatement.
- Sec. 825.215 Equivalent position.
- Sec. 825.216 Limitations on an employee’s right to reinstatement.
- Sec. 825.217 Key employee, general rule.
- Sec. 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury.
- Sec. 825.219 Rights of a key employee.
- Sec. 825.220 Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise assert FMLA rights.
- SUBPART C Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act (825.300 – 825.313)
- Sec. 825.300 Employer notice requirements.
- Sec. 825.301 Designation of FMLA leave.
- Sec. 825.302 Employee notice requirements for foreseeable FMLA leave.
- Sec. 825.303 Employee notice requirements for unforeseeable FMLA leave.
- Sec. 825.304 Employee failure to provide notice.
- Sec. 825.305 Certification, general rule.
- Sec. 825.306 Content of medical certification for leave taken because of an employee’s own serious health condition or the serious health condition of a family member.
- Sec. 825.307 Authentication and clarification of medical certification for leave taken because of an employee’s own serious health condition or the serious health condition of a family member; second and third opinions.
- Sec. 825.308 Recertifications for leave taken because of an employee’s own serious health condition or the serious health condition of a family member.
- Sec. 825.309 Certification for leave taken because of a qualifying exigency.
- Sec. 825.310 Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).
- Sec. 825.311 Intent to return to work.
- Sec. 825.312 Fitness-for-duty certification.
- Sec. 825.313 Failure to provide certification.
- SUBPART D Enforcement Mechanisms (825.400 – 825.404)
- SUBPART E Recordkeeping Requirements (825.500 – 825.500)
- SUBPART F Special Rules Applicable to Employees of Schools (825.600 – 825.604)
- SUBPART G Effect of Other Laws on Employee Rights Under FMLA (825.700 – 825.702)
- SUBPART H Definitions (825.800 – 825.800)
- Appendix A [Reserved]
- Appendix B Certification of Health Care Provider (Forms WH-380E & WH-380F)
- Appendix C Notice to Employees Of Rights Under FMLA (WH Publication 1420)
- Appendix D Notice of Eligibility and Rights & Responsibilities (Form WH-381)
- Appendix E Designation Notice to Employee of FMLA Leave (Form WH-382)
- Appendix F [Reserved]
- Appendix G Certification of Qualifying Exigency for Military Family Leave (Form WH-384)
- Appendix H Certification for Serious Injury or Illness of Covered Servicemember (Form WH-385)
- SUBPART A Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act (825.100 – 825.127)
- 42 CFR PART 50 POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY.
- SUBPART B Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects (50.201 – 50.210)
- SUBPART C Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service (50.301 – 50.310)
50.303 General rule.
50.304 Life of the mother would be endangered.
50.306 Rape and incest.
50.307 Documentation needed by programs or projects.
50.308 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.
50.309 Recordkeeping requirements.
- 42 CFR PART 441 SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES
- 42 CFR PART 457 SUBPART D, STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS: COVERAGE AND BENEFITS
- Sec. 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions.
- 45 CFR PART 283 BONUS TO REWARD DECREASE IN ILLEGITIMACY RATIO
- Sec. 283.1 What does this part cover?
- Sec. 283.2 What definitions apply to this part?
- Sec. 283.3 What steps will we follow to award the bonus?
- Sec. 283.4 If a State wants to be considered for bonus eligibility, what birth data must it submit?
- Sec. 283.5 How will we use these birth data to determine bonus eligibility?
- Sec. 283.6 If a State wants to be considered for bonus eligibility, what data on abortions must it submit?
- Sec. 283.7 How will we use these data on abortions to determine bonus eligibility?
- Sec. 283.8 What will be the amount of the bonus?
- Sec. 283.9 What do eligible States need to know to access and use the bonus funds?
- Roberts v Galen of Virginia, Inc. (1999) (the Court of Appeals held that in order to recover in a suit alleging a violation of §1395dd(b), a plaintiff must prove that the hospital acted with an improper motive in failing to stabilize her. Finding no support for such a requirement in the text of the statute, the Supreme Court reversed)
- Goehring v. Brophy (9th Cir. 1996) (mandatory student registration fees that subsidize abortion services do not violate the right to free exercise of religion)
- Elizabeth Blackwell Health Center For Women v. Knoll (3d Cir. 1995) (finding Pennsylvania Abortion Control Act invalid due to lack of waiver provision and physician certification provision)
- Madsen v. Women’s Health Ctr. (U.S. 1994) (establishment of a 36-foot buffer zone on a public street from which demonstrators are excluded passes muster under the First Amendment, but several other provisions of the injunction do not)
- N.O.W. v. Scheidler (U.S. 1994) (health clinics had standing to bring RICO action against abortion protestor group)
- Planned Parenthood v. Casey (U.S. 1992) (state abortion regulation has the purpose or effect of imposing an “undue burden,” which is defined as a “substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion before the fetus attains viability”)
- Webster v. Reproductive Health
Services (U.S. 1989) (Due Process Clause did not require states to enter into the business of abortion; State’s interest in protecting potential life could come into existence before the point of viability)
- Roe v. Wade (U.S. 1973) (woman’s right to an abortion fell within the right to privacy protected by the Fourteenth Amendment)
- Griswold v. Connecticut (U.S. 1965) (First, Third, Fourth, and Ninth Amendments, create a new constitutional right, the right to privacy in marital relations)
- Buck v. Bell 274 U.S. 200 (1927)(very old opinion affirming an involuntary sterilization)
- CMS: Emergency Medical Treatment & Labor Act EMTALA imposes specific obligations on Medicare-participating hospitals that offer emergency services to provide a medical screening examination (MSE) when a request is made for examination or treatment for an emergency medical condition (EMC), including active labor, regardless of an individual’s ability to pay. Hospitals are then required to provide stabilizing treatment for patients with EMCs. If a hospital is unable to stabilize a patient within its capability, or if the patient requests, an appropriate transfer should be implemented.
- DOL: Family Medical Leave Act Latest developments, guidance, interpretations, FAQs and fact sheets from the Department of Labor.
- Most States Anticipate Implementing Streamlined Eligibility and Enrollment by 2014 (OIG 2014) The ACA authorizes States to expand eligibility for Medicaid to higher income individuals. An estimated 11 million additional beneficiaries will enroll in Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) by 2022 because of these changes.
- Children’s Health Insurance: Information on Coverage of Services, Costs to Consumers, and Access to Care in CHIP and Other Sources of Insurance (GAO 2013) In five selected states, GAO determined that the separate State Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) plans were generally comparable to the benchmark plans selected by states in 2012 as models for the benefits that will be offered through qualified health plans (QHP) in 2014.
- WIC Program: Improved Oversight of Income Eligibility Determination Needed (GAO 2013) The discretion granted by federal law, regulations, and guidance in certain areas of income eligibility determination for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) has resulted in policy variation across states and localities.
- Children’s Health Insurance: Opportunities Exist for Improved Access to Affordable Insurance (GAO 2012) GAO estimates that under the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), about three-quarters of approximately 7 million children who were uninsured in January 2009 would be eligible for Medicaid, the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), or the new
premium tax credit.
- Abstinence Education: Assessing the Accuracy and Effectiveness of Federally Funded Programs (GAO 2008) Among the efforts of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and unintended pregnancies, the agency provides funding to states and organizations that offer abstinence-until-marriage education.
- Separate State Children’s Health Insurance Program Enrollees’ Eligibility for Medicaid in 2006 (OIG 2007) To determine the extent to which children enrolled in separate SCHIPs were eligible for Medicaid, we examined case records of a random sample of 400 children enrolled in separate SCHIPs on June 1, 2006, from 36 States with separate SCHIPs.
- Assessing States Progress in Meeting State Children’s Health Insurance Program Goals (OIG 2007) Assess States’ progress in reducing the number of uninsured low-income children, including their progress in meeting the strategic objectives and performance goals included in State plans.
- Fraud and Abuse Safeguards in Separate State Children’s Health Insurance Programs (OIG 2007) To determine the extent to which States have met requirements to establish fraud and abuse safeguards, we examined documentation and interviewed staff from 6 States with separate SCHIPs and 17 health plans contracted by these selected States. Using this material, we also assessed State oversight of separate SCHIP contractors regarding fraud and abuse issues.
- Decision Process to Deny Initial Application for Over-the-Counter Marketing of the Emergency Contraceptive Drug Plan B Was Unusual (GAO 2005) GAO found that high-level management’s involvement for the Plan B decision was unusual for an OTC switch application and FDA officials gave GAO conflicting accounts about when they believed the decision was made.
- Birth Certificate Fraud (OIG 2000) We gathered general information regarding vital records policies and procedures from 53 primary vital records registrars using mail surveys. We also collected more in-depth information through personal interviews with State registrars, fraud investigators, and local and State vital records, Passport Services, Immigration and Naturalization Services, Social Security Administration, and public assistance staff in five States and New York City.
- Maternal and Child Health Training Grants: The LEND Program (OIG 2000) The Interdisciplinary Leadership Education Excellence in Caring for Children with Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) is a training grant program. Its purpose is to train professionals who will improve the health status of infants, children, and adolescents, with or at risk for, neurodevelopmental and related disabilities.
- CHIP’s Impact on Changing Service Delivery of Federal Health Centers: Six Case Studies (OIG 1999) To examine the experience of six Federally funded health centers during their States early implementation of the Childrens Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and/or concurrent Medicaid expansions within the context of the changing health care environment.
- OIG/HCFA Special Advisory Bulletin on the Patient Anti-Dumping Statute (OIG 1999) Addressing requirements of the patient anti-dumping statute and the obligations of hospitals to medically screen allpatients seeking emergency services and provide stabilizing medical treatment as necessary to all patients, including enrollees of managed care plans, whose conditions warrant it.
- The Children’s Health Insurance Program – States’ Application and Enrollment Processes: An Early Report From the Front Lines (OIG 1999) It is estimated that approximately 12 million children in the United States are currently without health insurance. Many of these uninsured children are eligible for Medicaid but are not enrolled in the program. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 created Title XXI of the Social Security Act, the Children’s Health Insurance Program. Title XXI provides $24 billion over 5 years to develop health insurance programs for low-income children. States have the option to expand their existing Medicaid program, design a new children’s health insurance program or develop a program that combines these strategies.
- Federally Funded Health Centers and Low Income Children’s Health Care: Improving SCHIP Enrollmentand Adapting to a Managed Care Environment (OIG 1998) Federally funded health centers have been major safety-net providers for low income families since the 1960s. These centers have struggled in the 1990s to continue their mission as States move toward Medicaid managed care.
- Abortion Clinics: Information on the Effectiveness of the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (GAO 1998) GAO provided information on: (1) the occurrence of abortion clinic incidents before and after the enactment of the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act of 1994 (FACE); (2) views regarding FACE and its effectiveness from representatives of these clinics, selected police departments and U.S. Attorney offices, and other representatives from the Department of Justice (DOJ), the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, and national anti-abortion organizations; (3) efforts by local and federal law enforcement agencies following the enactment of FACE; and (4) any court cases pertaining to FACE and the
courts’ rulings in those cases.
- Federal Funds Provided to Planned Parenthood Organizations (GAO 1998) GAO provided information on the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the Alan Guttmacher Institute, focusing on the amount of federal funding that supports these organizations; federal agencies that receive and disburse the funds; and congressional committees with jurisdiction to authorize or appropriate these funds.
- Defense of Marriage Act: Federal Benefits, Rights, and Privileges Contingent on Marital Status (GAO 1997) Identifies federal laws in which benefits, rights, and privileges are contingent on marital status.
- Health Insurance: Coverage Leads to Increased Health Care Access for Children. (GAO 1997). Many experts believe that the lack of health insurance discourages families from seeking preventive and other needed care for their children.
- Maternity Care: Appropriate Follow-Up Services Critical With Short Hospital Stays (GAO 1996) Focusing on: (1) the risks that are attributable to short hospital stays for maternity care; (2) health plan actions to ensure quality postpartum care for short-stay newborns; and (3) state responses to concerns about patient protection.
- Health Insurance for Children: Many Remain Uninsured Despite Medicaid Expansion (GAO 1995) Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the status of health insurance for children.
- Health Insurance for Children: State and Private Programs Create New Strategies to Insure Children (GAO 1996) Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed state and private efforts to insure children who are not eligible for Medicaid and whose parents cannot purchase private insurance.
- Health Insurance for Children: Private Insurance Coverage Continues to Deteriorate (GAO 1996) Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the number of uninsured Medicaid-eligible children in 1994.
- Medicaid Prenatal
Care: States Improve Access and Enhance Services, but Face New Challenges (GAO 1994). About 37,000 infants die in the United States each year, many unnecessarily.
WIC’s Efforts to Promote Breastfeeding Have Increased (GAO 1993) The Department of Health and Human Services has set a goal, by the year 2000, of increasing the percentage of women who breastfeed their infants to at least 75 percent at hospital discharge and to at least 50 percent at five to six months postpartum.
- Prenatal Substance Exposure: State Child Welfare Laws and Procedures (OIG 1992) An alcohol or drug exposed infant is born every 90 seconds in the United States.
- Crack Babies (OIG 1990) The National lnstitute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) estimates that over 6 million women of child-bearng age are using illegal substaces; for 1 millon this means cocaine. The President’s National Drug Control Strategy estimates that 100,000 cocaine expose babies are born each year.
- Crack Babies: Selected Model Practices (OIG 1990) This report descrbes selected model pratices which may be effective in assisting drug-exposed babies and their families.
- Boarder Babies (OIG 1990) A boarder baby is an infant who remains in the hospita even though medically ready for discharge. Babies stay in the hospital due to legal complications, questions about the parents’ abilty to cae for the babies , and a lack of care alternatives.
- Birth Certificate Fraud (OIG 1988) The foundation, or breeder document, for almost any other kind of identification for citizens is the birth certificate. Over 7000 State and local vital records offices issue birth certificates with no uniform standards for issuance processes, controls, or quality of documents. In some jurisdictions, birth certificates are easily counterfeited, obtained through imposture, or created from stolen legitimate blank forms.
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